Sunday, May 17, 2020
Research by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicates that women often experience new or different physical symptoms as long as a month or more before experiencing heart attacks. Among the 515 women studied, 95% said they knew their symptoms were new or different a month or more before experiencing their heart attack, or Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). The symptoms most commonly reported were unusual fatigue (70.6%), sleep disturbance (47.8%), and shortness of breath (42.1%). Many women never had chest pains Surprisingly, fewer than 30% reported having chest pain or discomfort prior to their heart attacks, and 43% reported have no chest pain during any phase of the attack. Most doctors, however, continue to consider chest pain as the most important heart attack symptom in both women and men. The 2003 NIH study, titled Womens Early Warning Symptoms of AMI, is one of the first to investigate womens experience with heart attacks, and how this experience differs from mens. Recognition of symptoms that provide an early indication of heart attack, either imminently or in the near future, is critical to forestalling or preventing the disease. In a NIH press release, Jean McSweeney, PhD, RN, Principal Investigator of the study at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, said, Symptoms such as indigestion, sleep disturbances, or weakness in the arms, which many of us experience on a daily basis, were recognized by many women in the study as warning signals for AMI. Because there was considerable variability in the frequency and severity of symptoms, she added, we need to know at what point these symptoms help us predict a cardiac event. Womens symptoms not as predictable According to Patricia A.Grady, PhD, RN, Director of the NINR: Increasingly, it is evident that womens symptoms are not as predictable as mens. This study offers hope that both women and clinicians will realize the wide range of symptoms that can indicate heart attack. It is important not to miss the earliest possible opportunity to prevent or ease AMI, which is the number one cause of death in both women and men. The womens major symptoms prior to their heart attack included: Unusual fatigue - 70%Sleep disturbance - 48%Shortness of breath - 42%Indigestion - 39%Anxiety - 35% Major symptoms during the heart attack include: Shortness of breath - 58%Weakness - 55%Unusual fatigue - 43%Cold sweat - 39%Dizziness - 39% Related NIH research into heart attacks in women includes possible ethnic and racial differences.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Othello as a Black Man in a White Society Shakespeares play,Othello, explores themes of love and passion, otherness, jealousy, revenge and order vs. Chaos, which all revolve mainly around the protagonist, Othello. Surrounded by Venetians within a white society, Othello begins to realise his otherness thus his insecurities as an outside and a Moor increase. The deceptive Iago uses these dangerous blemishes in Othellos personality to manipulate the moral Othello, using his one fatal flaw, jealousy. During the 16th Century, the Elizabethan audiences attentiveness and familiarity of the thin line between order and chaos would have added to the tragic story of Othello. This was due to theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What he meant by this is that Othello is a foreigner to all, because of his blackness he can never fit in. However, this is ironic as the people of Venice accepted Othello as a righteous and valiant general in the army, due to his brave act of protecting the Venetians from the evil grasp of the Turkish people. Interestingly enough, these Venetians dont compare Othello to the supposedly iniquitous Turks because he had defeated them, so they placed him higher up in the hierarchy of racial and social class. Iago expresses his own opinion that Othello is an erring barbarian which is very ironic as Othello has the status of a shielding warrior, a generous being that is a strong part of the army. Roderigo calls him the lascivious Moor and tends to see Othellos black colour as a sign of dirtiness and obscenity. The characters in Othello may possible have felt that Othello was a threat due to his otherness in his appearance, such as his thick lips. Othellos character is overtly and crudely sexualised, which is also a disadvantage to Othello as other characters begin to believe that he is aggressive and sadistic. Black people, during the time of Shakespeare, were mysterious to the white society. Venetians were not used to seeing and living with people of other races and feared them because they were not familiar withShow MoreRelatedOthello, By William Shakespeare1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages A society consists of diverse cultures, looks, values, and beliefs. In a world with one predominant culture, those perceived as different from the norm are associated with negative images and treated inferior to the superior culture. The negative images associated with color, specifically blackness, has a detrimental effect on the victims who are racially stereotyped. The character Othello is a unique character in English literature, because unlike the other members of society, Othello is an outsiderRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare9 41 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBlack Racism and the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance on stereotypes to judge individuals of a different decent can be traced throughout literature. The ElizabethanÃ¢â¬â¢s are no exception, and as their view of the word grew so did the permeation of racism and xenophobia in their society. Theater in Elizabethan England was full of stereotypical black characters that further perpetuated societyÃ¢â¬â¢s racist tendencies. One play that challenged these stereotypes was Williams ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Othello which depicts theRead MoreOthello Discrimination Essay1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Othello: Downfall by Discrimination When Shakespeare wrote Othello, black people were seen as inferior to white people. The play takes place in Venice in the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s, a progressive city growing rapidly with new ideas and cultures. Not all introductions were welcomed, however. The Arab culture, known as the Moors, was seen as Ã¢â¬Å"brute, cowardly, lustful, savage, and diabolicalÃ¢â¬ (Toker 1). They were stereotyped as inferior based on skin color, religious beliefs, and attitudes. To Venetians, the appearanceRead MoreEssay about Racism in Othello862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRacism is inextricably linked to the story of Othello and presents several universal themes, still prominent in modern society. It is this that questions what sort of message Shakespeare intended to convey to his audience; was Othello the black Ã¢â¬ËmoorÃ¢â¬â¢, portrayed as a tragic hero? Or did his character eventually come to resemble the prejudices of which he was a victim? A text rich with ethical debate, Othello is a story of black a nd white, culture, fate, and ultimately good versus bad. Racial Ã¢â¬ËothernessÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello is seemingly about the blooming affection between a man and a woman. However, it is a love story gone wrongÃ¢â¬âor is portrayed as so by the author. In the historical context of Othello, which is set during the Turkish-Venetian war in the 16th century, it is essential to emphasize that Othello is the love story between Othello, the Moorish general, and Desdemona, the Venetian lady. This racial difference is most problematic to the eyes of the white Venetian society, allowing charactersRead MoreExploring How the Symbolism and Imagery of Blackness Help Shakespeare to Create Meaning in Othello795 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShakespeare to Create Meaning in Othello Shakespeare uses various symbol of blackness to express negative and racist attitudes. He does this to meet the expectations of the Elizabethan audience, who held certain misconceptions about black people. Shakespeare uses this early in the play and involves characters such as Brabantio, Iago and Roderigo, this also assist in the construction of imagery. These racist remarks are directed towards Othello and the majority of the racistRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Othello And Racial Interactions With The Ones From New York City962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe book Othello show similarities to racial interactions with the ones from New York City. However, looking closer at the play, Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ , seem to show us many interesting aspects of cultural differences. It seems that not only, racial and cultural differences were unconventional, but also Ã¢â¬Å"unnaturalÃ¢â¬ . As an illustration, within first act of Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ , Roderigo and Iago encounter Brabanito and make many _not nice__ remarks towards the relationship between BrabanitoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter and Othello. Iago saysRead MoreKahron Fyffe. . World Literature . . Dr. Fiore. . 28 April1036 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLiterature Dr. Fiore 28 April 2017 Othello: Hero or Stranger Othello is a hero due to being a hardened and vicious warrior on the battlefield but he is also a tragic hero in this play. A tragic hero by definition is a literary character who makes a judgment error that inevitably leads to his/her own destruction. For example Othello is the husband of Desdemona whom he murders because he has been misled by the villainous IagoRead MoreOthello - A Play That Transcends Time Essay941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesworld of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello. It is through my exploration of these perspectives and their relationship with changing morals and values that has enriched my understanding of the play. One such reading of the play challenges the marginalisation and objectification of woman in a patriarchal Venetian society, while taking into account the changing role of women in modern society. Another interpretation of Othello examines its post colonial elements through the protagonist Othello, and his insecuritiesRead MoreOthello, By William Shake speare1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ is a play written by William Shakespeare in 1603. In this play, Shakespeare features three major characters: Othello, Iago, and Desdemona. Othello, a black man, and Desdemona, a white venetian secretly eloped in the play. Iago shows racism and prejudice towards their relationship because of their skin colors. In the play, Iago says: Ã¢â¬Å"Even now, now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise! Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, or else the devil will make a
Ethical Issues Quintell Turner Liberty University Ethical Issues Ethics plays a huge role in the counseling profession. The professionals that practice counseling whether group or individual must be very careful not to violate any of the ethics code because it could cause them to lose their career. Counselor and Therapist that work with groups setting have ethical standards that they must adhere to only a daily basis. There are several ethical issues that may present as barriers to counselors and therapist as well as the people that they serve.Whether it is in a group setting or in an individual setting, professional counselor and therapist must be careful staying within code of ethics. Group counseling can offer several relationships that assist individuals in growth and problem solving. Within group therapy, the participants are encouraged by the leader to discuss issues that may have brought them into therapy openly and honestly. Group leaders work hard to create an environment that is built from trust and acceptance and encourages participants to support one another. There are several codes of ethics that counselor must adhere to while leading group sessions. According to the ACA Code of Ethics, in a group setting, counselors take reasonable precautions to protect clients from physical, emotional, or psychological trauma. (A. 8. b. Protecting Clients) Counselors must lead a group in a professional manner and make sure that all participants understand that being respectful at all times. Counselor must also make sure that all members of the groups informed of confidentiality and that all information remains confidential within the group.According to ACA Code of Ethics (2005), in group work, counselors clearly explain the importance and parameters of confidentiality for the specific group being entered. Those are two of the most important codes of ethics that may present as an issue in a group setting as well as individual setting. Group leaders must also know that it is unethical for them to use techniques unless they are adequately trained to use the technique or they must be supervised by someone that is thoroughly trained to use the technique. Group counselor also needs to avoid from using a group to benefit for themselves ecause that can be unethical. The leader should lead the group and help the participant s with whatever situation they are going through instead of benefiting from group by drawing all the attention to themselves. Therapist may choose group counseling over individual counseling due to it may be beneficial for the client to interact with other individuals that may have some of the same issues that they are having. Group therapy allows clients to have opinions and diversity due to having other people around that may be going through something similar to them.Therapist may choose to do group therapy rather than individual therapy because they have the option to challenge the clients that they serve in a group setting rather than just study the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. Individual counseling may cause problems with the client and therapist relationships. When attending or conducting individual counseling the client do not have others that may be able to get ideas from like in a group setting. Some counseling may chose group therapy because it may not seem as personal as individual counseling. The counselor in group settings do not have to cater to one client but have several that they have to wor k with. Leading a group sessions allows the counselor to participate in discussions that they engage in with the participants. There are opportunities for the groups to do exercises and get involvement from other members that are in the group to assist with dealing with their problems. Therapist that lead groups also lead by allowing the members to communicate and give each member involved the emotional support. Leading individual counseling sessions, the leader can build a trusting relationship which may have allowed the client to open up more.Clients that attend group sessions may take longer to open up and build trusting relationships slower than someone in a individual counseling session. There are several challenges and benefits of ethical small community practice. When a counselor or psychologist is practicing within a small community, they tend to treat clients that may know one another. In this situation counselor that practice in group and private sessions must make sure that they remain confidential at all times and not mistakenly share another personÃ¢â¬â¢s information while in a session with another client that may know that the particular clients is going through.Counselors that practice in small communities must always try to practice ethically and professionally by, also obtaining informed consent and making that the clients that they serve understand confidentiality and how all clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ records are kept privately. Counselors should also document thoroughly when dealing with clients and that may have relationships outside the therapy sessions and within the community. Counselor should set boundaries and expectations at the beginning of each session and let the client know what is expected as well as let the client tell the counselor what they expect from them. Self-monitoring does not end once an initial decision is made. It is an ongoing process to ensure that actions are in the best interest of clients as situations and factors change during the ongoing course of treatment. Ã¢â¬ (Gallardo, Haldeman, Helbok, Schank, 2010) Getting involved in continuing education may be beneficial for counselors, psychologist and therapist that practice in small community to stay on top of ethical training due to having to apply ethical techniques in small communities. A counselor that practice in small communities may have relationships that are classified as dual relationships. According to Jacobs (2012), dual relationships are relationships that exist in addition to the therapeutic relationship established between the leader and the members. This type of relationship needs to enter into with caution by both the group leader and the participant. A study was performed using 894 employees and their 222 immediate supervisors to test ethical leadership. The employees and their supervisors worked financial institution located in the United States.The participants were men and women of all ages on average of 27 for the employees and 36 for the supervisors. They were of all races including White, Hispanic, African American and Asian. All the participants that were selected had at least a high school diploma and worked for the company for at least 6 months in many different departments. The researchers collected data used in the research on two different occasions in a five week span from both the supervisors and employees. The researchers gave each participant a survey packet with a cover letter inviting them to participate in the research.The researchers explained to the participants using the cover letter the purpose of the study and what they hoped to accomplish by using them. The cover letter also ensured each participant that confidentiality would be used throughout the study. The participants were assured that all answers that were provided on the surveys would remain confidential and would not affect their employment. The participants were then informed that they will be receiving another survey in five weeks and stated that it was very important that the participants participated in both surveys. The surveys that the supervisors and employees received were different surveys and neither group knew what the other groups surveys were about. The supervisors were asked to complete a questionnaire that asked them questions regarding their own personalities that included agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. They were also asked to give some of their personal information such as gender, age, and race. The employees were asked to rate their supervisors ethical leadership behavior as well as to give their personal information. The participants were given three days to complete the surveys.The next survey was given to the employees and the supervisors five weeks after they finished the first survey. The employees were given a survey to measure psychological safety and supervisors were asked to rate voice behavior. The supervisors were given the names of the employees in the groups. After all the data was collected and studied. The researchers found that, Ã¢â¬Å"the leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to direct reportsÃ¢â¬â¢ ratings of the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to these ratings. (Schaubroeck, Walumbwa 2009) Ethical issues arise when researchers conduct research on economically disadvantaged and ethnic minority populations. There have been so many economically disadvantaged populations that have been exploited during researchers that have not followed any type of ethical guidelines. There are moral codes that should be put into place to protect research with humans that chose to participate in any type of research. There have been several studies performed using human participants that failed due to ethical issues and concerns. The participants were treated poorly by the researchers and not protected as they should under the code of ethics standards. Studies like the Tuskegee study in which the participants were treated poorly and not allowed to leave the study and get medical attention. Another study that failed due to ethical issues was the lead based paint study that did not advise the low income families the purpose of the study as well as the risk that their children may face with the lead based paint. These studies were all performed using disadvantaged individuals that were not advised of any ethical rights that they had as a participant.The participants that were selected in these researches were also uneducated and not know or understand their ethical rights if they were explained to them. When doing research on the economically disadvantaged and ethnic minority populations, researchers should follow the three basic ethical principles that The Belmont Report (National Commission, 1979) have set in place to protect human participants in research. The researchers should have respect for the people that they have chosen to participate in the research. They should give each participant the adequate amount of information and allow them to be able to make the decision on their own as to whether or not they want to participant in the research. The researchers should also follow the guide line of beneficence and make sure that the research that is being conducted will not harm the participant but act as a benefit to the participant. If there is any harm that can be done to a participant during a research they should be notified of the risk before the research is conducted.The researchers should also follow justice and ensure that each participant is treated fairly while participating in the research as well as be protected from any harm during the research. There should not be one group that is protected from harm while another is not protected during research. According to Knight, Roosa, and Umana-Taylor (2009), cultural competence is the biggest barrier to a researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to conduct studies in an ethical manner with div erse populations. The researchers display a lack of understanding of the values, beliefs, and lifestyles of the ethnic minority or economically disadvantaged groups. Researchers need to understand the values and beliefs of all populations who they wish to study so that they can develop effective ways of recruiting participants to do research studies on. There are ethical issues that present as barriers in screening clergy or candidates for religious professions for denominations that exclude homosexual clergy. Due to the high number of problems with appointing people to positions within the church many denominations like Christian and Jewish have selected psychologist to come in and screen potential candidates for professions within the church.These denominations are relying on the psychologist to weed out candidates that have a history of pedophilia, alcoholism and substance abuse, and psychological traits or disorders and they may not be able to function as a member of clergy. Psychologists have ethical obligations that they must adhere to when screening applicants for these positions. The must be treat the applicant with dignity and respect. P sychologist must also be careful when conducting screening for denominations not to ban anyone from the position due to their sexual orientation. If a psychologist bar some due to their sexual orientation they would be violated the code of ethics as stated in Ethic Codes. According to Standard 3. 01 of the Ethics Code (APA, 2002) that prohibits psychologists from engaging in Ã¢â¬Å"unfair discrimination based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, or any basis proscribed by law (p. 1064)Ã¢â¬ This may present as a issue when conducting screening for churches that may prohibit same sex orientation and can cause a the psychologist have a conflict within ethical code.Churches that bar professionals from clergy positions within the church may do so but are required to treat people with dignity and respect due to their ethical responsibility. When I led the discussion group session at my job it was the first time that I ever led a group. I feel that with the little experience that I had as a leader that I did well. I was well prepared and had a lot of knowledge about the information that we discussed in each session.I went over confidentiality with all the members of the group session and stressed the importance of not sharing information. After I started researching information on ethics, I felt that they with the lack of experience that I had as a leader that I did a great job with following the code of ethics. I still have a long ways to go to become an effective leader. Learning all the techniques that leaders should know when leading a group. Learning how to handle situations where there is conflict within the group would be a challenge for me because I do not like conflict.I also feel that learning and adhering to all the ethical codes would be challenging in some situations and as a counselor I would need to know how to avoid violating and ethical codes. I would also need to know how to handle situations that my ethics may be challenged by clients that I serve. I feel that I most of the ethics down but there are several that my happen that I may be unethical and not even aware of it. I would continue to be trained on ethics to make sure that any changes that are made I will be updated on.As a counselor I will educate the clients that I serve about their ethical responsibilities as well as my responsibilities as their counselor. All clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs to be informed of confidentiality during the initial meeting with counselor and some may need to be educated a little more than others on this topic. I will always make an effort to build a trusting relationship with the clients that I serve. I feel that building a trusting relationship will allow the client to open up and began the process of healing process. I know that some clients may not want to open up in the beginning but as they see others open up and share their stories they will begin to open up as well. As a group counselor I will use group exercises to participate with the clients in the group. According to Jacobs (2012) exercises can be used for the following reasons: to increase the comfort level, provide leader with useful information, generate discussions and focus the group, to shift the focus, deepen the focus, to provide opportunity for experiential learning, to provide fun and relaxation.Ethical issues present as barriers in counseling both individual and group sessions. Counselors have to be very careful while practicing and must remember to treat all the clients that they serve with dignity and respect. The counselors that practice in small communities must be careful and not break any forms of confidentiality and continue to be educated on ethical policies and confidentiality policies. Counselor that practice in smal l communities must also be willing to educate the people that they serve on confidentiality.
Monday, April 20, 2020
The Current State Of Affairs Regarding the Fourth Phase of the Tuscaloosa County School District Emergency Operations Plan in Alabama Student/parent information guide for Tuscaloosa county schools This student/parent guide by Hinton (2010) depicts that the Tuscaloosa county school district has laid down some systems that are already working. These include:Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Tuscaloosa County School District Emergency Operations Plan in Alabama specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Parent involvement policy: The school has incorporated a parent-involvement policy that accommodates parents as Ã¢â¬Ëfull partnersÃ¢â¬â¢ in all decisions made affecting their children and availing community resources aimed at boosting school programs, accommodating family practices, as well as enhancing the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ well being. Insurance program; The school has an effective insurance program in place that is mandato ry for all students. The insurance covers are affordable and cater for all accidental injuries sustained in the premises, including those inflicted during athletics. Crisis management plan;- the school is assisted by community agencies, for instance the SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s department, The emergency Management agency, among others to manage any perceived or real crises and to minimize any resultant adverse effects. Fire drills are conducted monthly within the school, with exit plans vividly displayed in all student-occupied rooms Tornado drills are also held almost quarterly, and in compliance with the Management Agency guidelines. A thunderstorm watch and warning guidelines are adhered to in accordance with the approved Emergency Management PlanAdvertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Criminal penalties; The school has effectively laid down rules and regulation to handle errant behavior like van dalism, possession of drugs, possession of illegal arms etc. This in essence lays down violence prevention strategies at the school. Address of Ã¢â¬ËSevere Weather information frequently asked questionsÃ¢â¬â¢ Hinton (2011) showcases some Ã¢â¬ËFrequently asked questionsÃ¢â¬â¢ on severe weather. This is another system set up by the school that is working. Its aim is to answer queries by concerned people on its preparedness for disasters attributed to adverse climatically changes. The school clarifies that it does not rely solely on TV for updates on changing weather but has other resources; and to prepare for the changes , its Central Office personnel keenly follow the weather forecasts which is broadcast via Ã¢â¬ËEmergency Alert Radio System, NOAA RadioÃ¢â¬â¢ and even through text messages several days beforehand. On occasions of severe whether (the actual days), updates are received via Ã¢â¬ËSouthern Linc. communications, media and storm spotters.Ã¢â¬â¢ On such days, any public transport is warned as such via Ã¢â¬ËVHF two-way radio.Ã¢â¬â¢ Areas needing improvement In my opinion, insurance policies should be spread to cover damage of student property caused by tornadoes, fires and other natural hazards; it is also important to put up constructions, preferably underground which cannot easily be damaged by natural disasters. I am also convinced that the school can go a long way offering fire and tornado drills beyond the schools to include neighboring communities who in most cases are also affected. Intensive training on the crisis management plan should also be all inclusive, that is the parents, students and communities too should be enlightened on this. Emergency plans goes way beyond weather changes to include violence in schools, as such sensitization should be done to all concerned to safeguard against crime and violence, and instead ethical and moral behavior should be taught and encouraged.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Tuscaloosa County School District Emergency Operations Plan in Alabama specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Hinton J.R. (2010).Tuscaloosa county school system: Severe weather information. Retrieved from www.tcss.net/Default.asp?PN=FAQSL=1Ã¢â¬ ¦. Hinton J.R. (2011). Student/ parent information guide for Tuscaloosa county schools. Retrieved from images.schoolinsites.com/SiSFiles/Schools/AL/Tuscaloosa This essay on Tuscaloosa County School District Emergency Operations Plan in Alabama was written and submitted by user Puff Adder to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Assumptions that patients have the right to die Essays Assumptions that patients have the right to die Essay Assumptions that patients have the right to die Essay Assumptions that patients have the right to die Name: Course: Lecturer: Institution: Date: Assumptions that patients have the right to die A good real life situation is that of Christine Busalacchi and Nancy Cruzan. In the case of Christine Busalacchi, she was involved in a car accident on May 29, 1987 where he was left in a persistent vegetable case. In the other situation of Cruzan, she was also involved in an accident where she was left in a persistent vegetable case. The two scenarios are similar, only that Cruzan preferred to die rather than stay a vegetable while Busalacchi did not indicate to anyone. According to the American law, a mentally sound person has the right to refuse medical attention even if this will lead to death. This includes all artificial treatment methods to support the life of a person. However, the difficult part arises when the patient does not have the ability to communicate his or her own decision like the case of Busalacchi. The dilemma arises as to who is supposed to make the decision and how the decision is made. In the case of Busalacchi, the parents have the right to represent the patient but they do not have the obligation to make the decision. On the other hand, CruzanÃ¢â¬â¢s parents had the right to make the decision because there was proof to indicate that she preferred death than living as a vegetable. Therefore, the law states that the patient has the right to die. The decision is only vested on the patient. However, if the patient is in a vegetable state, the guardian must proof that the patient would have preferred to exercise his or her rig ht in such a situation (Porter, Johnson Warren, 2005). Health care professionals do not have a right to give considerations in their course of caring for terminal patients. Additionally, the health care professionals do not have obligation of providing a futile treatment to the patient. This is because according to the laws of the health care professionals like doctors, the main priority is to ensure that the patients are kept alive at all the times. Doctors are obliged to save the lives of people not to facilitate death. This is also applicable to other health care professionals. They are all obliged to save the lives of the patients. For instance, in the two situations, they should not consider their rights to die instead they should consider saving her life (Friend, 2011). Therefore, health care professionals do not have the right or the obligation to consider patients rights to die. According to the law, family members of a patient to do not have the right or obligation on patientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to die. This is because nobody has the power over another personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. For this reason, the government does not allow anybody to make decisions for another person involving death. In the case of Busalaccho, the court had a difficult time to make a ruling because the parents do not have the right to make the decision (Shah Williams, 2003). However, on the case of Cruzan, the court gave the ruling in favor of the parents not because the parents made the decision but because there was prove implying that the patient did not wish to be kept in a vegetable state. It is argued that, there is no evidence proving that Schiavo wanted to die if she was of sound mind in such a situation. Therefore, they should keep her on medical treatment until she dies for natural causes. Caring and curing for the patient are the most confusing words in the medical treatment of a patient. In the perspective of the medical professionals, their main aim is to offer treatment to the patient as they exercise due care. In this situation, they do not have the right to facilitate death just because they care for somebody who is in pain. On the side of the family, there priority is to care for their patients (Porter, Johnson Warren, 2005). Therefore, they often feel that it is better to honor patientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to die if there is not treatment and he or she is in a lot of pain. However, considering all other factors, curing should be the number one priority. Ethical principles in relation to patientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to die are a great dilemma to the medical profession. In most cases, ethical principles are affected by moral distress. The patient and the guardian they know the moral judgment but they do not have the right to act (Rushton et.al 2012). According to the ethical principles, patients should be allowed to make those decisions that affect their lives. This is based on the respect to anatomy. On the other hand, based on justice, ethical decisions should be made in consideration of those people who are affected by the decisions. Therefore, in the two instances, decision should consider other parties involved and the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Rainbow, 2002). References Friend, M., L. (2011). Physician-Assisted Suicide: Death With Dignity? Journal of Nursing Law. 14 (3-4) Porter, T., Johnson, P. Warren, N., A. (2005). Bioethical Issues Concerning Death. Critical Care Nursing. 28 (1), 85-92. Rainbow, C. (2002). Description of Ethical Theories and Principles. Davidson College. Retrieved from: bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/Indep/carainbow/Theories.htm Rushton, C., H. et.al (2012). The 4AÃ¢â¬â¢s to Rise Above Moral Distress. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. S. Shah Williams, M., L. (2003). End-of-Life Decision making Ã¢â¬â Have we got it Right? European Journal of Cancer Care. 12, 212-214.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Protein, Lipid and Carbohydrate Digestion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Protein, Lipid and Carbohydrate Digestion - Essay Example It is inside the stomach, where is it temporarily stored, that preliminary chemical digestion begins. Partially digested food then goes to the small intestine where much of the digestion and absorption of nutrients occur. The large intestine simply serves for the further absorption of water. Chemical digestion of proteins starts in the stomach. The stomach produces HCl which converts pepsinogen to pepsin. Pepsin is a kind of endopeptidase which splits the internal peptide bonds in the protein molecules. That is, it breaks the primary structure of the protein. As opposed to endopeptidases, exopeptidases split the first or last peptide bond in the polypeptide. Zymogens, a form of protease, are secreted by the pancreas, which in turn are activated by enteropeptidase. Enteropeptidases convert trypsinogen to trypsin, which then hastens the conversion of more trypsinogen to trypsin. Furthermore, other zymogens are converted by trypsin into their active forms. Carboxypeptidase is converted from procarboxypeptidase. Chymotrypsin is converted from chymotrypsinogen. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin are endopeptidases. Carboxypeptidase, on the other hand, is an exopeptidase. Protein digestion is a concerted effort of all these enzymes. Lipid or fat digestion occurs only in the small intestine. As a result, most fat/lipid molecules remain undigested when they reach the duodenum.
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
McKenzie Corporations Capital Budgeting - Assignment Example It is of immense importance that one gets the knowledge on the market as well as comprehends the nature of the economy. Based on the calculated values the stockholders are better off with an expansion in the company. This is because the value is higher by $9 million that implies that the firm's value, as well as the profits, would increase. Question 2 Debt of Company - $34 million Expected value of debt without the expansion = 0.30*34 + 0.50*34 + 0.20*34 = $34 million. The expansion is fully financed by equity this implies that the debt does not change. Therefore, the value of expected debt will remain the same with no changes. Question 3 Expected value of the company without expansion =E (value of company) =P (Low)*V (Low) +P (Normal)*V (Normal) + P (High)*V (High) =0.3*30 +0.5*35 + 0.2*51 = $36.7 million Expected value of the company with expansion =E (value of company) =P (Low)*V (Low) + P (Normal)*V (Normal) +P (High)*V (High) - Cost of financing = .30*33 + .50*46 + .20*64 -8.4 = $ 37.3 million The value of debt remains the same this implies that the additional value would be for the stockholders. The value expected for the stockholders = 0.6 million while the expected value for the bondholders =0. Change in the expected net Value due to the expansion =37.3 - 36.7= 0.6 million Question 4 An expansion of the company there will lead to a decrease in debt to equity ratio as well as long-term risk of the company. This is because the equity of the company will rise. The bond value, as well as the price of bonds for the company, will increase. This will also be accompanied by an increase in the profits to both stockholders as well as bondholders of the company (Ross, 390). Without an expansion, the value of bonds in the company will not change. The status of the bondholders remains unchanged, as well. The value of the debt remains as $34 million. Question 5 Without expansion, the equity of the company remains the same in the next year as in the current year. This is since additional capital will not be necessary if there is no expansion. Debt is, therefore, not of the essence in both the present and the future the company as it will not be able to borrow (Ross, 390). This will be in the case where the company continues to decrease their current debt. The company will not have greater equity in the next year once the debt covenants are over. This implies that the company will not access the financing it needs to expand. If the company expands, it will not be able to raise the debt. This is because they are prohibited from issuing any additional borrowing. They would then need to do the expansion by means of equity